^/6-f M/IRBLE /ID/IPT/ITIONS ' bu the HILG/IRTNER MARBLE COMMNY BALTIMORE. MARYLAND LOS ANGELES. CALIFORNL\ I «D MARBLE ADAPTATIONS HILGARTNER MARBLE COMPANY BALTIMORE. MARYLAND LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNL\ ,hlOS I The \\ alters Art Galler>% one of the show-places ol tiaStimore. This fine marble interior is built of marble from the quarries of Washington County Man-land. Delano and Aldrich. of New York were the Architects. \OTE A number of specimens of the versatile work of this organization areshownon pages iq to 43 A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE HILGARTNER MARBLE COMPANY .'I i " HE foundation stones of the Hilgartner Mar- . ble Company were laid by Ludwig Hilgartner, who was a native of Germany, but im- ■ migrated to this country in 1851 at the age of nineteen. After his advent, he worked at his trade of marble cutter for a number of years. In 1861 he formed a partnership for the carrying on of the monu- mental stone business. This partnership continued until 1873, at which time he determined to go in busi- ness for himself. He built a modest plant at 714 West Baltimore Street, a location at the time very suitable for his business, as it was central enough to make his display room of real value. A few^ years later, his oldest son, Charles L. Hilgartner, followed in the footsteps of his father by beginning at the first rung of the lad- der, becoming a marble-cutter in the mill. He rapidly went through all the de- partments of the business. The second son, Andrew, did likewise, and it was but natural that, in 1885, a partnership should be formed under the name of L. Hilgartner and Sons. This partnership contin- ued until the death of the father, Ludwig Hilgartner, in 1902. Our First Shop. In the meantime, as the J- H IXOWIC HIIjCARTNER business grew, the lack of a railroad siding pf^> serious handicap, and the company was forced t< ' iicnt to - '^ ' ^ : a mill foot of bharp ^>creet and the Baltimore and Ohio P ' 1 The mor " -• ' rkshop. hour • is »cd at the and was ^ J until 1910, when a more pretentious show-room was opened- - iu\ mam sh . . .i i fares. N Ar monumcniai n < ' ! fcrrc ^ • -^c Shiof, a SI t<^» a I entire city i FcUowing partnership known as L. Hilgartner and Sons was dis- solved and the business was incorporated under the name of the Hilgartner Marble Company. In 1914 Andrew Hilgartner died. Fortunately the business, being a corporation, continued to function without in- terruption. The two sons of Charles L. Hilgartner, Charles E., and Andrew H., entered the business in course of time. The former died in 1925, after a service of fifteen years with the company. The present officers include, of the original incorporators, Charles L. Hil- gartner, the oldest son of the original founder : and his son, Andrew H. Hilgartner, Vice-President and Treas- urer. It is interesting to note the changes that came about in the marble industry during the past half-century. About 1 880 the use of marble as tops for furniture sprang into vogue, and so heavy was the demand that the sales increased monthly. Many thousands of these tops were shipped to all parts of the United States. How- ever, the demand suddenly ceased, almost overnight, as is the case with most fads. It seemed for a time that the business was due for a period of depression, when a new use for marble sprang up just as suddenly as the other had died. There had been developing a national interest in sanitation, and marble had become recognized as a material in building construction which met all the re- quirements of hygiene. This recognition crystallized into a demand for marble washstands and for many years the marble mills were never quite able to meet the public need. When enamel and porcelain ware gradually found favor, the call for marble washstands lessened consider- ably. In the meantime, however, the use of marble for floors, walls, stairways, and as a decorative material for the interiors of buildings, had gained in popularity — WHAT IS MARBLE? l^^^gpECHNICALLY marble is a rock made up /7 1^ ' chiefly of crystalline particles of calcite or ur i ■ dolomite, or both. Commercially, marble in- f ' ^ eludes a number of stones that do not come within the confines of this definition. Perhaps a better definition would be that advanced by Renwick in his book on Marble and Marble Working: "Marble is any natural stone that is of less hardness than granite, that is sufficiently close of texture to take and retain a polished face, and produced in sufficient quantity as to be available." This would admit such stones as Verde Antique, Onyx, Travertine, Sodalite, Chrome Schist and Alabaster. Of these, Verde Antique is by far the most important, at least in the United States. Its pre- dominant and necessary constituent is serpentine, a hydrous silicate of magnesium. The majority of our commercial marbles are calcitic or dolomitic, and are believed to owe their origin to calcareous deposits upon the bottom of the sea, in relatively shallow water. These deposits were formed by the shells of the myriads of microscopic organisms that exist near the surface of the sea. When first laid down, these sedimentary deposits were originally hori- zontal ; if existing conditions had not changed, they might have increased indefinitely, both in size and thickness. The crust of the earth, however, was very unstable and underwent great changes. The clear seas that teemed with countless lime-producing animals be- came muddy and deposited sand, gravel and clay. The earth constantly lost heat and contracted. The lateral pressure thereby set up, increasingly powerful, raised the horizontal beds slowly above the surface of the ocean. These forces were sufficient to consolidate the calcareous deposits, to bend, crumple, fold and tilt and overturn tlnem, and even break tinem into pieces and re- consolidate them. While marble forms but a small percentage of the crust of the earth, its actual quantitv is enormous; as It is widely distributed, there is no danger of the available supply ever being exhausted. It is onlv the great cost and risk of development that make marble more expen- sive than some other materials. After coming through all the convulsions of the earths crust, after being folded tilted and ruptured by these movements, acted on by weather, and eroded by glaciers, it is a matter of N^onder that any deposits of marble are ever sound enough to yield blocks large enough for commercial use furthermore, the development of a quarrv usuallv en- tails the removal of a mass of overlying material, as well as the discarding of unsound marble, so that even after a productive stage is reached, the operations rarely yield as much as 60 per cent of good marble, and often not more than 20 per cent. Below this vield, the quarrv IS not likely to be a financial success. The marble producer has his greatest trouble with what the geologist calls •joints," which are cracks found myariably ,n all rocks. These joints, while not coming with any regularity, usually appear at right angles to each other and to the bedding planes of the marble. The cracks that bother the quarryman are not those, as a ru^e hat anyone can see. The inexperienced observer m^si f h 'r r^'"" '^"^ '" " ^^'^^' he would even W '^"^ '" '^' ^^*" '^^^' 'hev do show, unsLn i ^' '"'"" ^"l^' "'"■'''<-' *^ •^""^'^^J' ^" that ,f no unsoundness ,s visible ,n a polished piece of marble, tnerc arc none there 1 he best wa> to test the soundness of marble when ^^u^,ng It ether ,n the form of Nocks or unfinished slabs ,r^ %■ r--^^-^ Matched panc!"^ (^t bkyros (^Urcck* marble is to drench the material thoroughly with water. This brings out clearly both cracks and color. Fortunately, the marble producer usually develops all of the defects as well as all of the qualities of his stone before offering it for sale, and is usually the first to point out any defects to the customer. He knows that that is essential if he expects to hold his trade. Colors are due to various constituents. Black and gray shades come from carbon; red, pink and reddish brown are due to the presence of either manganese oxides or hematite; yellowish and creamy tones are mostly caused by hydrous oxides of iron. Dale says the green color of certain Vermont marbles comes from the presence of fibrous potash mica, and the purplish tint of one of the dolomites of the Lake Champlain region from a mixture of hematite and magnetite. Siderite gives a buff color to some Vermont dolomites, and chrome- mica causes green bands in some Colorado marbles. A LITTLE JOURNEY THROUGH OUR BALTIMORE PLANT ■V:¥ HEX blocks of marble first come into our plant, they are placed in our general stock. The illustration on page 13 shows a part of our storage yard, filled with blocks of all sizes. A huge traveling crane picks these up and carries them to the sawing department. These marbles are brought from all parts of the world — from Italy, France and Belgium; from England, Germany and Norway; from Africa and South America; and from many parts of the United States and Canada. Some are for specific orders, ready to be filled; others are for general use, so that we may be prepared to fill orders without delay. The marble blocks are of all shapes and dimensions, and the first step in preparing them for use is to cut them into sizes best adapted to the purpose for which they are intended. This cutting is accomplished by means of either circular, gang or w ire saws. The last mentioned is used for ripping up thick stock and it con- sists of a long cable of three wires twisted together. forming one wire about one-quarter inch in diameter. This cable runs around a succession of grooved w heels, that can be raised or lowered as desired — or otherwise adjusted; the tension is controlled at one point on the line, by means of w eights. Sexeral blocks of marble may be sawed at the same time, the wire being set to run over and on top of the blocks. Sand and water are (cd to the w ire at the point where it first touches the block. The saw . running at a moderate speed, will cut through stone w ith surprising quickness. The illustration at the bottom of page 1 3 shcAvs one of th( <c m;Khincs at work in our open yard. II General view of yards showing part of stock of rough blocks always carried on hand. Wire saw at work cutting marble. I> The &-foot gang sau shown abo\c i^ one of twelve in our sawmill in Baltimore It is because of just such thorough equipment that this company is enabled to accept important contracts wherein time, as well as skill, is an important element. Where a number of parallel cuts are to be made through a block or through a number of pieces that to- gether form a block, there is no cutting method in use that is more practical than the gang saw. Such a ma- chine is shown abo\e. It is made of a heavy steel frame in which are placed, at definite intervals, bands of steel drawn rigid, which act as the cutting blades. This frame is set with saw blades in contact with the top surface of the marble block and is then "shuffled" back and forth by mechanical power, while a stream of 14 n The diamond saw is used for cutting marble into large rectangular pieces and for making irregular and oblique cuts; it is a necessary accessory of a properly equipped marble mill. One is shown in the picture on page 17 at the extreme rear of the building just beyond the horizontal fluted column. These saws consist of circular steel plates carrying on their edges a series of steel teeth in each of w^hich is set from one to three diamonds. The cutting speed is much greated than with either gang or wire saws, as the diamonds eat their way through the material with remarkable speed. After coming from the saws, the slabs are coped, rubbed and polished. The method of transportation is by means of trucks and platforms specially constructed for ease and rapidity of handling. One of these is shown at the bottom of page 17. The trucks have hydraulic lifts controlled by hand levers; the platforms are sep- arate, sturdy and movable. By running the trucks underneath these platforms, the latter may be lifted along with their loads from off the floor and borne about the plant from point to point. In order to secure satisfactory operation of these trucks it is necessar\- to have smooth but tough floor surfaces. All our floors are of concrete, kept in thcjrough repair. Moreover, a clean shop is insisted upon at all times, to speed up this local transportation and increase the general efficicncN' of our plant. White and Tennessee marbles arc coped b\' pneu- matic air tools to an approximate size onKv, w ith rather rough edges. The fanc\ marbles, more brittle and un- sound, are coped to exact size on a carborundum ma- chine, such as is shown on page 18. This machine is also known as a gang coper, because extra saws can be inserted at distances determined by the w idths desired, and man\' strips cut at the same time. The cutting 16 Transporting slabs from one machine to another by means of a hydraulic truck. fk.>Wji A carborundum coping machine. is done by discs of carborundum, revolving rapidly. The marble is placed in position on the table beneath the disc, and automatically fed against it. For cutting slabs into tiles, this machine is especially useful. An even larger coper, really a combination machine, having a cross-cut head, which cuts the marble into de- sired lengths, is shown on page iq. It is especially adapted for cutting large slabs to exact size both in width and length, without moving the slab after once it is placed on the machine. In cutting lengthwise the table bed moves; in cutting crosswise only the cross- head moves. This method eliminates an extra handling of slabs, resulting in a twofold economy. Not only is one of the costs of finishing reduced, but the ha;:ard of breakage is lessened. After coping, all materials must be faced on the rubbing beds, and given a sand finish. This applies whether they are intended for floor work or for standing marble. In the latter case, they are given a honed or polished finish afterwards. The rubbing bed not only effects a sand finish, but brings the material to the exact thickness required. Illustration on page 20 gives an excellent idea of the process. It is one of eight such machines in our plant. The bed itself is a cast-iron disc varying in size from 10 up to 14 feet in diameter. This disc revolves in a horizontal position. The surface of the disc is kept smooth and true by grinding it down occasionally with iron weights. When the slabs are placed on this rubbing «E_ A combination coping machine with crossncut head. One of our large rubbing beds bed, the abrasion is effected by the weight of the marble itself with the addition of sand and water fed auto- matically. After the slabs come off the rubbing bed, the>' go to the honing and polishing department. The illustration on page 21 shows only a corner of this department. Here we have seventeen machines, hal f of them equipped with iron discs inset with carborundum blocks, and the other half equipped with felt buffers. The slabs go first to those having carborundum blocks, which are caused to revolve over the surface of the marble, while a stream of water runs onto the slab through the center of the shaft holding the disc. This operation results in a hone finish, which is a ^•ery smooth surface also knoxxn as a satin finish. A confusion exists in some quarters as to what is a dull or satin finish and what is a polished finish A dull polish IS not really a polish at all, since no buffing has been done. For a real polish the slabs must go to the machines equipped with the felt buffers. Here a very small quantity of water is used, merely enough to dampen the chemicals that are used with the buffer. The heat caused by the friction of the felt buffer re- volving against the slab, in conjunction with the action of the chemicals, causes the polish. This method for honing and polishing is applied only to slabs of uninterrupted flat surfaces. For curved or irregular surfaces, the polishing is done by hand. The polishing of fluted columns and moulded work is also done in this manner. Columns that are not fluted have a special treatment. They are first gritted by sand stone while revolving in a lathe, then honed and pol- ished. These three operations are all done while the marble column revolves in a lathe. When it is desired to shape marble into mouldings, etc., the carborundum moulding machine is employed. mi 1 Buffing and polishing machines A honing machine is shu in the right foreground. Moulding a trim with a carborundum moulding machine. This shaping and finishing is accomplished by a wheel of carborundum, shaped the reverse of the detail desired, revolving rapidly against the marble, which is fastened to the table and is moved against the wheel. The illustration above shows a moulding machine shaping a slab to the proper design. After this operation, these mouldings go to the fitting department where the pieces are laid together in con- tinuous stretches in the order in which they will event- A monolithic column 17 teet b inches long being fluted on one of our machines. ^ MMM '~?fi View of carving depar' n a m 1 he bell-shaped urn of Belgian Black marble is one of a pair in the War Memorial Building, Baltimore. ^3 ually be installed in the building. They are then rubbed at the joints, in order to secure a perfect alignment of the various members of the mouldings. After precision of fit is assured, the pieces are then honed and polished in the usual way. On page 23 is shown one of our machines for fluting monolithic columns. This particular column was 17 feet 6 inches in length and the operation was rendered doubly difficult because the column had an entasis. The carborundum cutting wheel has the re\'erse shape of the flutes, and the operation is similar to that described above for fabricating mouldings. The entire plant is electrically equipped throughout. We have, in fact, our own substation for reducing the central power company's current from high to low voltage. Each machine is driven by a separate motor, insuring freedom from any serious tie-up on account of belt breakage or motor trouble. All the pneumatic air tools are driven by air, compressed in our own plant. However, there is one factor that enters largely into the successful handling of a marble contract, and it is a factor that is too often overlooked. We refer to the personnel of the plant — the employees who operate the various machines and whose ability is responsible for the accuracy of the work turned out. These men are not mere workers. They are artisans, mostly with years of experience and family traditions back of them. Their fathers before them were marble craftsmen. Some of our men have been with us as long as fifty years. They take a proper pride in their skill and despise shoddy work. The fact that such a large proportion of our force is made up of such men is assurance of our ability to give more than satisfactory service. Detailed plans are worked up and designs originated in this section of our drafting Part of our clerical force at work in our main office. ^5 OUR LOS ANGELES PLANT ^^X 1922 it was decided to establish a western plant. Los -Angeles, California, was chosen as the most desirable location, because of "Mz^J. the building acti\ities throughout that sec- tion of the countn-, and its rapid growth. .■\n a:rp.ar.c \ .iiw c: o-j.t Los Angeles plant. .An independent company was formed, with Mr. Charles L. Hilgartner as President, Mr. Charles E. Hil- gartner as \'ice-President and Mr. Louis Hilgartner Dapprich as Second \ 'ice-President and General Man- ager. Mr. Dapprich had learned the marble business w ith the Baltimore company, and had afterw ards been their Chicago representative for a period of years. 2b A tract of land of eleven acres on the outskirts of Los Angeles was acquired, with exceptional railroad facil- ities, and upon this site a most complete marble plant was constructed. Modern machinery was installed and the latest methods of marble fabrication were adopted. The illustrations on this and the preceding page give an adequate idea of the completness of this mill. Since its organization, the Hilgartner Marble Com- pany of Los Angeles has successfully completed a num- ber of very important contracts, some of which are shown in the latter pages of this book. These are evidence of this plant's ability to execute any marble work that may develop in the building field. The close connection between the Baltimore and Los Angeles mills gives an advantage to each plant in service that effectively covers any part of the United States. The yard of our Los Angeles plant. 27 ON THE FOLLOWING PACES ARE SHOWN A NUMBER OF MARBLE ADAPTATIONS INSTALLED BY THIS COMPANY THESE INCLUDE BOTH EXTERIOR AND INTERIOR TREAT- MENTS, MANTELS AND GARDEN FURNITURE. IN A MAJORITY OF INSTANCES THE DESIGNS FOR THE SPECIAL DECORATIONS, MANTELS, GARDEN FURNITURE, ETC., WERE ORIGINATED BY OUR ARTISTS Main entrance lobby of Standard Oil Company's Building, Baltimore. A magnificent marble treatment— a combination of both beauty and stability. In this construction permanence and dependability have not been subordinated to decorativeness. The floors are of Tennessee marble with Black and Gold for the base. Tavernelle Fleuri marble was used for the wainscoting from floor to ceiling. The col- umns are also Tavernelle. Clyde N. Friz, Architect, Baltimore, Maryland. iq Richmond 1 Italuin Ciintun and Ru»:kcil. Att^ilccl^ private •« • A corner of the main banking room of the National Bank ot Baltimore. Bot- ticino and Tennessee marbles were used to express the architects" ideas. C. B. French, New York, and T. W. Pietsch, Baltimore, Architects. Banking room of Citizens National Bank. Baltimore. The columns and counters are Rose Tavernelle marble; the floor is Tennessee marble. L,raham. Anderson, Probst & White, Chicago, Architects. 31 Lobby of the Pershing Square Building. Los Angeles, California. The floor is of Travertine tile; the walls are of Golden Vein St. Gene- vieve marble. Curlet and Beebman, Architects. n The lobby of the Tivoli Theater, Washington, D.C. Siena marble was used lur the wainscoting and columns; York Fossil for the base. Thomas Lamb, New York, Architect. Interior of the War Memorial. Baltimore. Travertine, Tavc-n i Belgian Black and Red Ark Fossil marbles were used in this striking treatment. Laurence Hall Fowler. Baltimore, Architect. 33 Jewelry store o I .^ ... and C^o . Lo- An^^clL"^, Californi.j 1 he lir^i (Kj<jr up to the balcony supports is of Black and Gold marble — a v ery elec- tive treatment. L. and E. Manuel, San Francisco, Architect. :>iairwav oi iavcrncllc marble in the Maryland Historical Society Building, Baltimore W'yait and Nolting. "Baltimore. Architects. 34 In this grand stairway of the Maryland Institute, Baltimore, marbles from Tennessee, Alabama, Africa and Greece were used. The monolithic columns are of Numidian marble. Pell and Corbett, of New York, Architects. 35 Ruvc lavcrncllc and Unntssec marDic viu.iwuv irom Safe Deposit Department to main banking floor. Citizens National Bank, Baltimore. Graham. Anderson. Probst tV White, Chicago. Architects. Stair Hall in the US Chamber of Commerce Building, Washingtc^n I ) C ; Ihc fl<x>r IS Travertine, the walls of Pouillcnay Rose. l>»c twist in the Mnng oi thc stairway is one solid piece of marble Cass Gilbert, New York, Architect 3^ An unusual door in the Law Building. Norfolk, Virginia. Tinos marble was used for this fine entranceway. Peebles and Fergu- son, of Norfolk. Virginia, were the Architects. 37 n Thl"» doorway of the National Bank of Baltimore w«« huilt of Pink Tcnnc^vrc marble with B'' -*' '^ f - The architects were C B ' ii (>j . Inc .of New Y- Piet!ich, of Bakimufw )S Palm CouM li. lii^ uvooy v/» ui.^ :>Lv .lower Hotel, Washington, D.C. The marble fountain is the chiet feature of this room. Warren and Wetmore, New York, Architects; Robert F. Beresford. Associate Architect. ^m^mjr ^■. ^. M Fountain in the garden of Mr. August Kiel at Milford, Pennsylvania. Italian marble was used for the statue, and Alabama marble for the pjedestal and basin. — ■- - . ■ ■ ^-: 39 This striking Gothic mantel of Hautcville marble was made for the residence of D. S. Blossom, Cleveland, Ohio. It was designed by Abram Garfield, Architect. of Cleveland, and fabricated in this plant. A simple but beautiful mantel in the home of N'trs. S. T. Bland. West Point, Virginia, built in accordance with our own design. The marble is Second Statuar>'. 40 A magnificent mantel in the home of Mr. E. H. Everett, Washington, D. C. Oakley Totten, Jr.. of Washington, was the architect. Silver Gray Siena was used throughout. Another mantel in Mr. Everett's Washington residence, designed by Oakley Totten. Jr.. Second Statuary was the material employed. 41 A mantel in the home of Mr. H. B. Gilpin, Scaleby, Clark County, Virginia; designed by Howard Sill, Architect, Baltimore. Blanco P, a white marble from Italy, and Siena facing were used, with W'edgewood inlays. A ii\ing-rc>c>m manici in tnc home oi \ir n. M. Mc.Aden. Charlotte, North Carolina, from plans of our own design. The material is Second Statuar>- marble, with an antique finish. 42 A monument in Loudon Park Cemetery. Baltimore, of Westerly granite, executed from our own design. The Frick Monument in Grccnmount (:emcter> . Baltimore. Alabama marble was used for this dignified creation. John Russel Pope. New York. Architect. 43 CARE AND CLEANING OF MARBLE '.: ,ARBLE retains its original beauty longer Mthan any building material known, but for this very reason it is frequently allowed to ,_^ ^ . , stand without cleaning amid the dirt of the modern city. Naturally the surface, in course of time, is bound to accumulate a coating of foreign matter that detracts considerably from its appearance. But, where other materials would be permanently marred by such neglect, marble may be readily restored to its pristine freshness. It is, however, much the wiser plan to give the marble the same frequent attention that one would give to the paint or woodwork. It is more economical in the end and certainly the charm of the stone deserves it. It also frequently happens that those who attempt to keep marble clean are ignorant of the proper treatment. The following suggestions should therefore prove inval- uable to those who have charge of structures containing marble. POLISHED MARBLE Polished marble should be cleaned weekly, or at least once a month. Grease, dirt and dust will collect on the surface and if not removed will result in a cloudy film and cause discoloration. Clean water and clean rags are all that is necessary as a rule. Occasionally a little mild alkali should be added to the water to remove the greasy film just spoken of. It is well to wash the marble with sponges and dry with a soft cloth. A little Javelle water added to the water used in cleansing is useful, not only for its cleansing properties but for its qualities as a disinfectant. Polished marble should be wiped dry after washing and then rubbed vigorously with a soft w^oolen cloth, cheese cloth, white cotton waste or chamois skin. This prevents streaks which might be left from dirt in the wash water. Never use an acid on marble. Neither should soaps, soft soaps, soap powder, scouring bricks nor harsh abrasives be employed, as they are often of a caustic nature and they may contain impurities which will bring about discoloration. Usually, they are not readily rinsible and, therefore, leave a film which will act as a binder for dust and dirt. Harsh abrasives destroy the polish. (Not only should you guard the front of the slab from things that will cause injury, but you should also be sure that there are no foreign substances on the back, the stains from which may work their way to the surface.) Do not use soap, nor any cleaning powder containing soap. The persistent use of soap will finally leave a film upon the surface of any wall or floor finish; this film forms in spite of thorough rinsing. It will make floors slippery and will finally cause a superficial oily appear- ance in delicately colored marbles, which detracts greatly from their appearance. FLOORS For cleaning marble floors, water with a little alkali, together with some scouring agent like diatomaceous earth, is a good combination. There are proprietary preparations which unite the necessary ingredients; some of them, however, contain soap and should be avoided or at least adopted only after it has been demonstrated that they have been freed of the objec- tionable qualities of soap. In sweeping marble floors, white pine sawdust is very 45 satisfactory. A\'oid sawdusts made from oak or other woods, also prepared sweeping compounds and oiled mops. They are likely to produce stains. As marble (except Verde Antique) is essentially cal- cium carbonate (or sometimes calcium magnesium car- bonate), acids should not be used in cleaning it. If oil, ink or other substance likely to discolor marble is dropped or splashed on it, prompt action will greatly diminish the trouble of removing it. Even the thinnest of fluids will penetrate marble but slowly, and prompt application of absorbent rags or paper is often all that is needed. OTHER SL'GGESTIONS If several hours or days have elapsed, other measures are required. Any organic coloring matter can be bleached out by persistent application of rags or blot- ting paper moistened with Javelle water; any alkaline or non-acid bleaching agent may be applied to marble without injury; the same is true of any solvent except acids and soap solutions. The only known stain that will penetrate marble and that cannot be removed is iron rust. Rust will not penetrate unless the marble is in contact with rusting iron for a long time; under such circumstances there is an affinity which produces what seems almost a solid solution. No interior marble will e\'er be stained with iron rust if, in setting, it is kept free from contact with pipes or other iron or steel parts of the structure. If grease or oil is promptly removed, no penetration will occur. If left for some time, grease stains may re- main. They can be removed in a number of wa\'S. Clean white blotting paper applied to the stain and heated with a hot iron; clean rags or waste or a pat of plaster of Paris kept saturated with gasoline and in contact with the grease stain (airplane gasoline is the most effective) ; a little quicklime slacked in contact with the stain; dry Portland cement kept in contact with the spot for several hours or a day or more ; ex- posure to direct sunlight where possible; all these meth- ods are effective. Sometimes, one is more effective, sometimes another. With ordinary care and attention nothing should ever happen to require the use of any of these methods. Prompt action in case of accidental application of grease, ink or similar substances, will prevent staining. As for iron rust, one would have to inspect hundreds of buildings and hundreds of thousands of square feet of marble for every instance found. Marble may become dingy and apparently stained from sheer neglect, es- pecially in basements and toilet rooms; but even in such case, it may always be restored to its pristine freshness by the application of Javelle water or by use of one of the methods mentioned above, either with or without Javelle water. The only thing really needed is a moderate amount of care and attention from the beginning. The marble will then continue clean and fresh and no elaborate methods will be required. 47 i^- THOMSEN-T-EUJS CO. eALTIMOBE*. NEW YORK iii.